2019年第6期

  www.57365.com:2019-11-13
 
目  录
纪念新中国翻译事业70年专栏 /
05 我译《诗经》《论语》和《老子》  许渊冲
07 从失学少年到巴蜀译翁—一个文学翻译家的成长和感悟  杨武能
10 文献翻译与对外传播:一位资深译审的行旅心得  王平兴
14 我从草原来—从事民族语文翻译三十年散记  阿拉坦巴根

理论研究 /
16 翻译研究话语表述中的“隐喻之真”  刘嘉
23 论不昧虚实的译学居中元认知  杨镇源
30 基于语料库的西方描述性翻译研究:回顾与展望  李德俊

译史纵横 /
42 假作真时真亦假—清末民初第一部伪译侦探小说揭示的文化和文学现象
  齐金鑫  李德超
52 离散译者陈荣捷与《传习录》英译  刘孔喜

译介研究 /
61 马克思主义中国化进程译介源头探析  方红

AI时代的口译技术与教学 /
69 人工智能时代的口译技术发展:概念、影响与趋势  王华树  杨承淑
80 人工智能时代口译员信息技术素养研究  李智   李德凤
88 信息技术与口译教学整合:层次、机制与趋势  邓军涛  仲伟合

书刊评介 /
96 副文本:翻译研究的另一扇窗口—凯瑟琳·巴切勒新著《翻译与副文本》评介  于洋欢  朱源  董雁

学术访谈 /
103 歌曲译配:一种特殊形态的翻译—歌曲翻译家薛范先生访谈录  覃军

译家研究 /
109 通过翻译讲述中国故事—戴乃迭当代中国文学英译研究  余静  刘晓黎

学术视点 /
117 新时期汉学家的文学翻译隐喻观  谭业升

学术争鸣 /
127 IMF几个复数术语译名之商榷  顾维勇

实践探索 /
132 哲学文本的审美间离、对话性与翻译构境  西风  汉雨
139 中国特色法律术语的翻译—从法定代表人的译法谈起  蒋开召  刘略昌
145 从动词语义结构看“总结经验”的英语误译原因  双文庭  萧国政

自学之友 /
151 The Green Pasture (Aldo Leopold)  曹明伦 译
153 语言分析和比较是翻译的基础—兼谈英译汉中的代词还原及其省略  曹明伦
158 我的师承(王小波)  王维东 译
162 文学随笔英译的风格再现  王维东

词语选译 /
165  中国关键词:新时代外交篇(节选)

第三十一届韩素音国际翻译大赛揭晓 /
评审工作报告、评审委员会名单、获奖名单
英译汉参考译文:起底人工智能:走出图灵测试(陈国华执笔)
英译汉译文评析:笔译中的“走出”与“植入”:Outing A.I.译后谈  陈国华
汉译英参考译文:What Limits Our Imagination?(施晓菁、姚斌执笔)
汉译英译文评析:宏观意图与微观策略:语用修辞翻译观  林大津
英文摘要 /
 
 
本期论文摘要
 
翻译研究话语表述中的“隐喻之真”
刘嘉 四川外国语大学
 
摘要:本文借鉴法国哲学家利科关于隐喻的语义更新机制及其去蔽意义的观点,同时结合尼采的真理论,深入剖析了翻译研究话语中的隐喻性表述在揭示后尼采时代的真理方面历经的三个阶段。转移论通过强化翻译的客观性,将研究视点从模仿论转向语言科学观,揭开了“源头之真”的面纱。系统论通过彰显翻译的时空性,将焦点转向翻译活动所在的历史图景,进而触碰到了“历史之真”的面纱。变形论通过突出翻译在世界文化语境与在欧洲中心主义语境中的差异性,将关注点转向译者群体以及译本中被遮蔽的剩余物,从而揭开了“差异之真”的面纱。文章指出,进一步揭示翻译现象背后的修辞内幕,使整体性差异中的个体性差异得以显现,或许是这一路径的必然走向。
 
论不昧虚实的译学居中元认知
杨镇源 电子科技大学
 
摘要:目前的译学元认知分别存在实化与虚化的倾向:在一方面,一些价值目标的确立使译论话语的实有性愈发坚固,因而不断加强理论边界的框定力量;在另一方面,后现代主义思潮下又侵蚀和消融各种价值目标,因而不断将译论话语推向虚无之境。对此,本文主张不昧虚实的居中元认知。该认知跳出虚实之缚,自在游走于译论话语的实有性和虚无性之间,使翻译学既不会因执着于译论之“实有”而自囿于门户之见,又不会因译论之“虚无”而彷徨于迷惘沼泽,从而形成辩证性的升华思维,迈向更加圆融自在的学理姿态。
 
基于语料库的西方描述性翻译研究:回顾与展望
李德俊 国防科技大学
 
摘要:自贝克(Baker)开启语料库翻译研究以来,该领域很快得到业界重视,研究不断深入,成果倍出。语料库方法也因此被视为翻译研究新的范式。纵观语料库翻译研究的诸多成就,描述性翻译研究的成果最为突出,其成就主要体现在下列两个方面:翻译普遍性研究和译者风格研究。本文首先回顾基于语料库的描述性翻译研究所取得的成果,比如对“第三符号”和“译者指纹”的探寻、对风格与意识形态关系的讨论等。继而,文章分析了现有研究的不足,并指出翻译普遍性研究缺乏进一步深入讨论的理据,而相比之下,译者风格研究仍然大有可为。
 
假作真时真亦假
— 清末民初第一部伪译侦探小说揭示的文化和文学现象

齐金鑫  中山大学  ∣ 李德超 香港理工大学
 
摘要:清末民初侦探小说翻译的繁荣,代表了时人对侦探小说这种“舶来品”的欢迎程度。通过研究清末民初第一部侦探小
说的翻译,本文发现,从语言风格、体裁特征、叙述手法等文本内因素和文本外因素分析,该作品应属伪译之作。侦探小说这种异域文学体裁对于当时社会而言属于异质文化,为了能将其引入,张坤德按照传统叙述结构、以符合当时社会主流文学规范的语言,名为翻译、实为创作了这篇侦探小说。这与当今普遍认为伪译者会偏离目的语文学规范、夸大源语文本特征相冲突。本研究发现有助于我们了解伪译在中国早期传播的形式和途径,并有助于建构关于伪译这种特殊文学及文化现象的翻译理论。
 
离散译者陈荣捷与《传习录》英译
刘孔喜  华中科技大学/湖北民族大学
 
摘要:旅美学者陈荣捷在海外弘扬中国哲学逾半个世纪,尤其致力于中国古代哲学文献英译事业,贡献巨大。其译著既忠实保留了中国哲学的独特性、异质性,又因翻译质量高、学术性强备受称赞。这两点特征均与他作为离散译者的文化身份有密切关系。本文以陈荣捷英译《传习录》为例,揭示其作为离散译者所具有的文化自觉意识对翻译选材、翻译策略选择的影响,以及作为离散译者所积累的文化资本优势对翻译活动的保障与促进作用。
 
马克思主义中国化进程译介源头探析
方红 首都师范大学
 
摘要:马克思主义最初进入中国载于传教士创刊出版的《万国公报》及《大同学》一书,其间接、零碎的译介究竟源于何处及其如何被选择译入近代中国尤其值得关注。本文基于史料梳理和文本对比,考察马克思主义初入中国的翻译路径及翻译选择的背景和策略。研究发现,初入中国的马克思主义思想片段是经由原作者与译者双重选择后的科学社会主义思想,其译介模式对马克思主义在中国的早期传播具有导向意义。马克思主义初入中国带有思想译介初期的普遍特征,其翻译选择及策略具有本土化意义内涵。
 
人工智能时代的口译技术发展:概念、影响与趋势
王华树  广东外语外贸大学  ┃  杨承淑 辅仁大学
 
摘要:人工智能时代的口译技术发展迅猛,给口译学习者、教学者和从业者带来了很多困惑,这些都需要我们对口译技术进行深入的学理探究。本研究梳理文献,将口译技术发展分为四个阶段,探索口译技术的本质内涵、分类和基本定位,结合口译实践发掘技术对口译模式、口译效率、口译能力和口译职业等方面的影响,预测口译技术未来发展趋势,旨在引导人们走出概念误区,正确认识口译技术的基本特征,建立完善的口译技术知识框架,同时为口译研究开拓新的疆土。
 
人工智能时代口译员信息技术素养研究
李智  哈尔滨师范大学  ┃ 李德凤 澳门大学
 
摘要:人工智能时代,信息技术发展对口译行业影响深远,给口译工作带来了便利和挑战。面对新的技术与时代要求,口译员究竟需要具备什么样的信息技术素养?本研究首先提出口译员信息技术素养的基本概念,通过问卷和访谈等实证研究方法对国内口译员信息技术能力进行调研,采用因子分析和结构方程模型探索口译员信息技术素养构成,构建了口译员信息技术素养模型,并深入阐释了该模型三个维度的表征与应用,希望有助于促进人工智能时代口译实践、口译教学和口译研究的新发展。
 
信息技术与口译教学整合:层次、机制与趋势
邓军涛  武汉工程大学  ∣  仲伟合  澳门城市大学
 
摘要:在大数据、虚拟现实、人工智能等前沿技术的引领下,信息技术在口译教学中的应用已突破外围辅助的层次,逐步向纵深方向推进。本文从通用领域、口译职业领域、教育领域三个方面,将影响口译教学的信息技术划分为七种类型,并从信息技术与口译教学的相互关系出发,按照技术应用的演进路线归纳出信息技术与口译教学整合的四个层次,即外围辅助、定制开发、合成应用与深度融合。在操作层面,本文结合国内外案例,从教学环境、教学资源、教学过程、教学评价四方面探讨了信息技术与口译教学的整合机制。同时,结合前沿技术的发展成果,从智能化、仿真化、精准化、协同化四个方面展望了信息技术与口译教学深度融合的发展趋势。
 
副文本:翻译研究的另一扇窗口
—凯瑟琳·巴切勒新著《翻译与副文本》评介

于洋欢  中国社会科学院大学  │  朱源  中国人民大学  │  董雁  山东第一医科大学
 
摘要:对译作副文本元素的深入分析不仅可以丰富翻译研究的范式,也可以使研究者更好地认识翻译的本质。凯瑟琳·巴切勒(Kathryn Batchelor)的新著《翻译与副文本》(Translation and Paratexts)在此领域迈出了重要而坚实的一步。通过对热奈特副文本概念的辩证分析,巴切勒以翻译研究为出发点,运用跨学科的研究方法,对副文本概念进行了翻译研究的语境化处理,进而建构出一个具有开放性和包容性的翻译研究副文本理论。本文在对该书的内容和特点进行评介的基础上,阐述其对当今翻译研究的几点启示。
 
歌曲译配:一种特殊形态的翻译
— 歌曲翻译家薛范先生访谈录

覃军  湖北民族大学
 
摘要:本文是对我国著名歌曲翻译家薛范先生进行的访谈。薛范先生立足于其60余年的歌曲翻译实践,论述了歌曲翻译作为文学翻译源头的重要性,他将歌曲翻译分为歌曲译配与歌词翻译,指出歌曲译配是一种特殊的翻译形式,并就其译配原则与策略、译配歌曲对中国近现代的影响、音乐对译词的限制以及中国歌曲外译等问题进行了详细的阐述。
 
通过翻译讲述中国故事
— 戴乃迭当代中国文学英译研究

余静  刘晓黎  上海交通大学
 
摘要:当前中国对外文化传播的战略任务,是通过各种文化输出方式来讲好中国故事,构建良好的中国形象。这意味着,当下中国文学外译研究的重要任务之一,就是考察中国故事由谁来讲,怎么讲和讲什么样的中国故事。本文聚焦翻译家戴乃迭的中国当代文学外译活动,考察戴乃迭的独译从题材内容到文本策略展现的特点,尝试回答以下问题:戴乃迭翻译了哪些中国文学作品?这些作品在处理中国文化元素的时候采取了什么样的翻译策略?戴乃迭的独译从内容到形式讲述了什么样的中国故事?研究发现,戴乃迭的当代中国文学英译从题材内容到翻译策略都展现出一定的特色,旨在为外国读者讲述多元而真实的、不一样的中国故事。
 
新时期汉学家的文学翻译隐喻观
谭业升  浙江越秀外国语学院/上海外国语大学
 
摘要:依据认知语言学的理论,概念隐喻在我们的认知活动中,起着截显事物或事件的不同侧面的作用,既可以照亮也可以遮蔽它们的现实属性和特征。在翻译历史上,翻译的实践者和理论家为复杂的翻译现象发展出多样化的隐喻,根据各自的经验或实际需要截显了翻译活动的不同侧面。这些丰富的隐喻为翻译提供了概念化和重新概念化的方式。在翻译生态发生变化的新全球化历史时期,作为中国文学“走出去”实践重要组成部分的汉学家译者也根据他们的翻译实践经验发展出新的隐喻。这些隐喻突显了新时期跨文化传播实践的不同方面,集中反映了他们对中西语言文化强弱张力或冲突的处理策略以及对中译外多元语境的重新定位,正在塑造和重构中国文学外译的现实。
 
IMF几个复数术语译名之商榷
顾维勇  南京晓庄学院
 
摘要:本文根据商务英语语境中复数词语具有专门的指代意义这一特殊语言现象分析了IMF几个复数术语的现行译名之误,给出正译。提出了这类复数词义的转换机制是由源语的基本词义引申为“款额”的意思,译者翻译这类词语时需要根据商务或金融英语的语境进行推理演绎,方可找到源语的“所指”,并给出恰当译名,亦即语境决定语义。
 
哲学文本的审美间离、对话性与翻译构境
西风  汉雨  南京大学
 
摘要:本文以《问题式、症候阅读与意识形态》英译本为研究对象,从哲学文本的审美间离和对话性视角探入,探讨原本中的审美间离与对话性的表现形式、翻译方法和美学效果。研究发现,标签词作为审美间离的一种文学手段在原文中被广泛使用,而译者也着力于以陌生化的翻译方法来还原原作词符的奇异性;对话性的主要特征包括多语体的融合以及“自我”与“他我”的多种对话,而译者也以复调的艺术再现了原作的艺术性、形象性和戏剧性。
 
中国特色法律术语的翻译
从法定代表人的译法谈起
蒋开召  上海海洋大学  │  刘略昌  上海理工大学
 
摘要:中国特色法律术语的英译是译者面临的一大挑战。译者不但需要精通中英法律语言,还应了解中西法律文化和制度的差异,采用合理的翻译策略,努力使英译术语在法律效果上和中文术语等同。
 
从动词语义结构看“总结经验”的英语误译原因
双文庭  武汉大学/武汉科技大学  │  萧国政  武汉大学/湖北语言与智能信息重点研究基地
 
摘要:本文通过汉英动宾结构语义关系差异,分析了汉语“总结经验”英语误译的原因。文章认为,该误译的主要原因是将汉语动宾搭配“总结经验”语义结构中的行为-产品关系错误地移植到了英语中,而英语的sum up在构成动宾结构时,并不支持行为-产品这种语义关系,而只能支撑行为-材料的语义关系。“总结经验”正确的英语译文应当是review one’s experience。上述两种表达法,尽管字面意义不完全对等,但整体上语义较为对等。这种差异从根本上讲,是人类的认知结构向汉英两种语言投射时,在语言结构上的显性成分和隐性成分的差异所致。
 
本期主要论文英文摘要
 
The Metaphorical Truth in Discourses on Translation
By LIU Jia (Sichuan International Studies University, Chongqing, China) p.16
 
Abstract: Drawing on Ricœur’s research on metaphor’s mechanism for semantic renewal and Nietzsche’s view of the metaphorical nature of truth, this paper identifies the three stages in which metaphors employed in discourses on translation have worked in the post-Nietzschean context to reveal “true facts” in translation. Stressing the objectivity of translation, the TRANSFER metaphors have first diverted our attention from a preoccupation with the notion of imitation to an interest in the science of language that results in the unveiling of “the truth of the original.” Putting emphasis upon the spatial and temporal features of the translation context, the SYSTEM metaphors have then rendered visible the historicity of translation activities, whereby “the truth of history” is disclosed. And finally, by calling attention to the differences between a globalized and a Eurocentric thinking about translation, TRANSFORMATION metaphors have led to the valuation of the invisible translators and the appreciation of the textual remainders as well, thus unmasking “the truth of differences.” After pursuing this line of inquiry through the three stages mentioned above, the paper suggests that a further development could be the unveiling of the rhetorical truth behind translation and the uncovering of individual differences within differences in general.
 
In-Betweenness as a Mode of Metacognition to Free Translation Studies from an Obsession with the Substantiality/Nihility Opposition
By YANG Zhenyuan (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China) p.23
 
Abstract: Metacognition of translation studies is currently torn between a tendency to emphasize its substantiality and a simultaneous one to stress its intangibility. Whereas the affirmation of some values of translation adds to the metacognition’s substantiality and reinforces its theoretical borders, the postmodernist undermining of these values tends however to deny its theories of any real existence. This paper advocates an in-between mode of metacognition as a way to free translation studies from an obsession with the substantiality/insubstantiality binary opposition. It argues that transcending such an obsession would help to avoid either the rigidity of the borders between different theories or the bewilderment resulting from a denial of theories’ ontological status. It would also help to promote a dialectical sublimation for achieving a more productive metatheoretical stance in translation studies.
 
Corpus-based Descriptive Translation Studies: Review and Outlook
By LI Dejun (National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China) p.30
 
Abstract: The corpus-based approach to translation studies, pioneered by Mona Baker, has since its launching become a new paradigm in itself. Among the significant contributions it has made to the development of TS is the grounding of the descriptive translation studies (DTS). The corpus-based DTS has two foci of research: translation universals and translator style. This paper first reviews what the corpus-based descriptive translation studies has achieved, from fruitful explorations of “the third code” and the “translator fingerprint” to enlightening discussions of the relationship between style and ideology. The review is followed by an analysis of the merits and demerits of existing researches, evaluating them in terms of the scope each allows for further exploration of translation universals or translator’s style.
 
The Cultural and Literary Implications of China’s First Pseudo-translated Detective Story During the Late Qing and Early Republican Period
By QI Jinxin (Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China) & LI Dechao (The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China) p.42
 
Abstract: The boom in publication of translated detective stories during the Late Qing Dynasty and Early Republican period in China reflects the popularity of this new literary genre at that time. What has been reputed as the first Chinese translation of a detective novel, however, turns out to be a pseudo-translation upon a careful examination of its intrinsic and extrinsic textual features. Zhang Kunde, its alleged translator, actually composed the story by himself to introduce this novel literary genre to China. And he pseudo-translated in such a way that the “target text” conforms to the linguistic and poetic norms of the target language at that time. This finding is in contradistinction to the belief that pseudo-translators would tend to deviate from the accepted literary norms of the target culture, and to exaggerate language features of the presumed original texts (Toury 2012). In addition to deepening our understanding of this pseudo-translational work’s formal features and generic identity, the finding also helps us to come to firmer grips with pseudo-translation as a special literary phenomenon in the target culture. 
 
Wing-Tsit Chan as a Diasporic Translator and His English Rendition of Ch’uan-hsi lu (Instructions for Practical Living)
By LIU Kongxi (Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China & Hubei Minzu University, Enshi, China) p.52
 
Abstract: Chinese American philosopher Wing-Tsit Chan had done much in promoting Chinese philosophy abroad over more than half a century, contributing significantly in particular to the English rendition of ancient Chinese philosophical works. His translations faithfully convey the originality and the uniqueness of Chinese philosophical tradition, their academic value had won him high reputation as a scholarly translator. This paper maintains that the distinction Chan has been able to enjoy is due largely to his cultural identity as a diasporic translator. Taking his English translation of Ch’uan-hsi lu (Instructions for Practical Living) as an example, the paper discusses the influence of a diaspora-engendered cultural awareness on his choice of translation materials and translation strategies, throwing light in particular on the cultural capital he had accrued as a diasporic scholar, and the strong influence he was able to exert in applying the capital to the practice and promotion of translation.
 
The Earliest Chinese Translations of Marxist Texts and the Dissemination of Marxism in China
By FANG Hong (College of Foreign Languages, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China) p.61
 
Abstract: Marxism was first introduced into China in the late 19th century, through indirect and fragmentary Chinese renditions of Marxist texts carried by the missionary-sponsored publication Wanguo Gongbao (Multinational Communique) and via the book Da Tong Xue (A Theory on the State of Great Unity). This paper looks into the early history of Marxism’s translation-enabled introduction into China, calling attention through textual comparison to how the strategies adopted by the translators concerned tended to be affected by the then prevailing socio-cultural conditions. Among the findings of this research project are: that the initially introduced ideas of scientific socialism are the result of a double selection by both the authors of the source texts and their translators; that the mode of translation adopted by pioneering Chinese translators of Marxist texts tends to show universal characteristics of ideological translation; and that the interpretation of the ideas in these translations is of much significance to Marxism’s localization in China.
 
Interpreting Technologies in the Era of Artificial Intelligence: Concepts, Influences and Trends
By WANG Huashu (Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, Guangzhou, China) & YANG Chengshu (Fu Jen Catholic University, Taiwan, China) p.69
 
Abstract: In the era of Artificial Intelligence (AI), the current theoretical representation of interpreting technologies has created much confusion among learners, educators and practitioners alike, and is hence in substantial need of a more systematic reconceptualization. To meet such a need, this study first brings a historical perspective to bear on the subject by dividing the development of interpreting technologies into four stages, whereby to enhance our understanding of the connotation, classification and positioning of interpreting technologies in developmental terms. The paper then calls attention to how the advancing of interpreting technologies has affected various aspects of interpreting practice, including interpreting modes, interpreter’s competence, and the professionalization of interpreting, and goes on to discuss what might become hot topics and trends in future development of interpreting technology. Through this comprehensive inquiry, the paper adds conceptual clarity to the essential characteristics of interpreting technologies, proposes a cognitive framework for better understanding such technologies, and points out some promising directions for furthering interpreting researches.
 
Integrating Information Technology into Interpreting Teaching: Levels, Mechanisms and Prospect
By DENG Juntao (Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, China) & ZHONG Weihe (City University of Macau, Macau, China) p. 88
 
Abstract: With the advent of cutting-edge technologies such as big data, virtual reality and artificial intelligence, the application of information technology (IT) to interpreting teaching has undergone a shift from the mode of external assistance to that of internal penetration. Taking into consideration this new development, we classify the information technologies applicable to interpreting practice into seven types, subsumed respectively under the three headings of the general field, the profession, and the education of interpreting. In addition, four levels of integration are distinguished between IT and interpreting teaching on the basis of the interrelationship between IT, interpreting profession and interpreting teaching: the level of external assistance, of custom development, of synthetic application and of deep fusion. To ensure practical application of this scheme of classification, we elaborate with reference to typical examples at home and abroad on the mechanism of integration in four respects: teaching environment, resources, process, and evaluation. In conclusion, we offer predictions from the perspectives of intelligentization, simulation, precision and collaboration about a trend toward deep fusion between IT and the teaching of interpreting.
 
Gladys Yang’s Way of Telling the Chinese Stories in Her Solo Translations of Chinese Literature
By YU Jing & LIU Xiaoli (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China) p.109
 
Abstract: One of China’s current cultural agendas is to project a positive image of itself onto the world by effectively telling a Chinese story to the international society. In this endeavor, translation has been playing an essential role and one of the major tasks facing Chinese TS is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Chinese story told through translation. To tackle this task, attention must be focused on investigating what kind of Chinese stories have been told through translation, by whom, and in what manner. This article takes Gladys Yang and her translations of Chinese contemporary literature for a case in point. By addressing questions such as “What Chinese literary works were selected for translation by Gladys Yang?”, “How were the culture-specific items in these texts translated?”, and “What kind of Chinese stories did she tell with her translations?”, the study finds that her translations of contemporary Chinese literature tend to exhibit certain textual and strategic characteristics, enabling her to vividly portray a diversified cross-section of the Chinese society and faithfully represent the authentic life in contemporary China. It is through these achievements that she had added her distinct voice to the collaborative and on-going efforts to tell the Chinese story abroad through translation.
 
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